Medicine In The Middle Ages

Learning is a continuing process and through new discoveries and invention we broaden our horizon of knowledge everyday. Throughout history man has illuminated the world with art, science, and philosophy and has also acquired abilities to invent and discover, various tools for its survival. One of the most powerful discoveries ever made is the knowledge of medicine. Though history of medicine can be traced back to the primitive age, medicine as a specialized field of study did not exit before the middle Ages. Based on Greek and eastern principles, European medicine embellished with the discoveries of the middle ages and set the foundation for the contemporary medicine.

The Heptameron by Marguerite de Navarre is a representation of the French society in the middle ages. She has depicted various social and cultural norms of the time in the stories. Her insight into the science of medical practiced in France in the Middle Ages is quite apparent Even though the importance of medicine as specialty was acknowledged among the intellectuals of Paris; the influence of the church remained a conduit for its advancement. Although the supremacy of supernatural over natural was obvious, a clear implication was established that the natural and supernatural world was separate if not independent. As a result what we see is an amalgamation of medical science, mysticism and religion in the middle age France.

Ancient physiologists believed that the body must always have a balance of these humors, for imbalance will cause ailments. Diagnosis was based on examining sample of blood and also colors of skin, urine and feces.

Medical treatment by trained physicians rare and very expensive as a result the elite class could only afforded it. The uncertainty and unavailability of academic treatment left no choice for the general population, but to turn towards certain charms, special prayers and specific Christian rituals. Thirteen century Paris had only a half dozen doctors in public employ, with little time to spend on individual patients. Practice of medicine was not restricted to a certain sect of people rather clergy and laymen, men and women were all able to practice medicine.

The physician often compounded and dispensed drugs in addition to practicing medicine. And apothecary often engaged in medical practice as well as compounding and dispensing. It is evident from the stories in heptameron that the drugs made by apothecaries could be very lethal at times as they did not have the proper knowledge. Also personal hygiene was not an important factor for an apothecary, live alone the common people.

Diet was thought to be extremely important in the treatment of illness and prescriptions would cover the minutest of details for all sorts of conditions. The greatest general reliance was placed on broths, milk and eggs. Today the importance of diet in medical science is felt extensively. Nutrition as a special branch of study has emerged. Dietitians and nutritionist are there to help physicians in treating patients who needs special diets. Plants and herbs were used in the preparation of digestives, laxatives, emetics, diuretics, diaphoretics, styptics etc. Drugs remain to be the major form of treatments today but with the advanced technology, pharmacology has become one of the leading businesses.

Surgery a last resort advised by a physician but also it was only accessible to the wealthy. Surgery was known to be successful in cases of fistula, hemorrhoids, gangrene and cataracts. Bloodletting was one of the most common forms of surgery and was recommended for fever, inflammation, and a variety of disease condition and ironically for hemorrhages as well. There were three main methods of bloodletting during the middle ages: leeching, venesection and cupping. Among these leeching is still used, though rare as a medical procedure by some physicians. Leeching helps to reduce tissue congestion where arterial input is maintained but venous return is blocked or slowed leeches act as an extra vein to relieve a dangerous build-up of blood. As a result leech therapy is finding its way into numerous reconstructive surgeries such as digit and limb reattachment, skin graft procedure, scalp avulsions, and breast surgeries and even into effective treatment of periorbital hematomas. Anesthesia and pain relievers were available but some of the potions used were lethal in itself. For example the hemlock juice was used, and it could easily cause death.

The diseases that were very common in the Middle Ages were dysentery, jaundices pneumonia, influenza and common cold. This could be largely attributed to the living condition of that time. Rural people largely lived in a one-room structure with a central fire or hearth and a central roof with a small opening which allowed some of the smoke to escape. Homes were dark damp and cold, with minimum sunlight and poor air circulation, a perfect breeding place for germs and bacteria. The climatic conditions and life style of the time with no proper facilities contributed to the lack of personal hygiene as well. It further escalated with population growth in the towns and cities. Also due to lack of advanced techniques, patients often died due to excessive blood loss after a surgery. Today personal hygiene is considered to be a key factor to live a disease free life.

With the latest technologies available infant mortality has reduced and longevity of humans has increased tremendously compared to middle ages. As we benefit from the sophisticated technologies of medical science, it is imperative that we acknowledge the contribution of our predecessors. What we are enjoying today is the fruits from the trees whose seeds were planted by our ancestor.

Medicine Benefits From Xenical Orlistat

Popular weight loss pill Xenical (generic name: orlistat) functions by stopping the digestive systems fat absorption. Around thirty % of the fat from your meals is stopped and taken out through bowel excretions. You lose greater weight in a short period of time. Orlistat was approved by the US FDA in 1999 as a weight reduction medicine. Individuals with a BMI (body mass index) of thirty or higher and have a challenging time losing pounds are usually prescribed Xenical. For the weight reduction to be greater, the physician also advises a healthy workout routine and a low calorie meal plan.

Proper Intake of Orlistat Medication
Xenical medicines should only be consumed when advised after a doctors visit. Only take the dosage noted by your physician. The typical recommended amount is 120 milligrams, consumed at least 1 hour after every main meal. The medicine will only be successful if you take less than 30 percent of your daily calorie intake. If you choose to skip a meal or take meals with zero fat, you can lessen your Xenical consumption.

Physicians also combine Xenical intake with multivitamins with fat-soluble parts. Since orlistat decreases the digestions absorption of fat-soluble nutrients, the nutrients will replenish the reduced supply.

Advantages of Xenical
Apart from orlistats established weight reduction effects, the medication also gives the body other health gains. Compared to other weight loss pills, Xenicals side effects will compel you to have healthy food. If you choose to eat oily and fatty meals, youll suffer uncontrollable bowel movements, fatty or oily stools, fecal incontinence, flatulence with discharge, and oily spotting. Taking more healthy meals will prevent such disgusting side effects.

People with a clinical history of diabetes can benefit from orlistat. Xenical is capable of reducing the probability of type 2 diabetes. For diabetic patients who are also recommended Xenical, the diet medications can reduce the amount consumed for your diabetes therapy. The weight loss medicine is also useful in managing high blood pressure. Since your weight is properly decreased, increased blood pressure is lessened and balanced.

Against Other Weight Loss Medicines
Other promoted and well-known diet medications can lead to detrimental side effects. These side effects influence your brain, with certain medications said to drive people crazy. Orlistat acts accordingly by shaping your digestion action. Fat is reduced by added excretion as opposed to of shifting body chemicals in charge of hunger and meal cravings. The side effects only happen if you turn away from the doctors advised low calorie meal plan. As previously mentioned, Xenical will only work effectively when combined with proper meal plan and a regular workout.

Medicine Additive In Cosmetics Applications Prospect

According to foreign medicinal plant extracts in cosmetics application status over the past ten years combined extract of traditional Chinese medicine research and application in cosmetic work done, most people believe that herbal additives in cosmetics research and development should go basic theory of Chinese medicine combined with modern scientific way, Cosmetics material, to establish a Chinese herbal medicine research with Chinese characteristics and application specifications. Given the current status of research in cosmetics research and development of Chinese medicine need to pay attention to the following questions.

1, to improve the quality of the level of detection. At present, the efficacy of cosmetic products of various components of business analysis and product quality standards of testing methods is still quite backward, does not resolve these contradictions, it is impossible to truly improve the technological content of products.

2, highlighting its unique research model. In addition to Japan, Western countries for the study of plant extracts is based on the study on chemical composition and pharmacological evaluation. Domestic cosmetics manufacturers and research institutions to study Chinese herbal medicine should be based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine combined with modern science and technology, to establish necessary to reflect the characteristics of the basic theory of Chinese medicine, but also meet the standards of modern medicine research evaluation system of Chinese herbal medicine mode.

3, the joint research. Domestic cosmetics companies and research institutions should be adopted will include fine chemicals, pharmaceutical, biotechnology and other aspects of talent combined for a joint interdisciplinary research model, the effectiveness of cosmetics to carry out the production process of traditional Chinese medicine research and development.

4, take the road of innovation. Technological innovation, is to ensure the rapid development. Domestic cosmetics companies active in the market to adjust for the internal product structure, should focus on the use of their resources, minoxidil, accelerate the development of some distinctive functional cosmetics and related products.

In Chinese medicine theory, under the guidance of the complex structure, composition range of Chinese herbal medicine for basic research work will be a long-term work. In practice, the domestic cosmetics manufacturers and research institutions should be fully aware of their peers lack, keep a cool head, take an active coping strategies to catch up, glutathione, and strive to improve in a short time effect of traditional Chinese medicine research and development of cosmetics backwardness, the development of a variety of efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine with the exact efficacy of cosmetics. Source: www.cosprm.com

Medical Assistants – 3 Bio Ethical Dilemmas

Hippocrates was a remarkable man in the history of medicine. He was an ancient Greek physician born in 460BC. Hippocrates is also known as the Father of Western Medicine. Hippocrates once said, Nobody should willingly cause any preventable human suffering or harm. These words are actually the core and basic truth of medical ethics.

Over two thousand years ago, Hippocrates knew that there are no perfect people. He knew that men can be great. In spite of this, he also knew what men are capable of. He exceedingly opposes those who recklessly harm people. He is hesitant to give drugs that he knew will just harm people. Having that said, many considered Hippocrates as the first bio ethicist.

Let us differentiate law and bioethics before we proceed. Law comes from the administration whereas bio ethics comes in two sources. First is personal ethics and the second one is professional ethics. The first one relies on the person’s distinctive morals and values. Professional ethics on the other hand are set by professional organization board. They are generally accepted by people practicing the profession. Without standards, anyone can practice medicine, administer drugs and perform medical interventions. Misdiagnosis, malpractice and even fatality can take place. Certainly, life is valuable. To protect man’s presence, health care professionals must know their worth and understand how important they are in the improvement of life.

Like the other profession, medical assistants too are facing bio ethical dilemmas at work. Some people do not realize that practicing medical assisting is not just organizing the clinical setting, caring for patients and memorizing the human anatomy. To be a skilled and medical assistanats, one must know how to act in an ethical demeanor. The code of ethics of the American Association of Medical Assistants or (AAMA) is responsible for providing guidance and supervision to medical assistants as to what is right and wrong in this specific field of practice. They are rather concern on doing the right thing at the right point in time.

Secrecy Breach
Every medical assistant professional must appreciate that confidentiality is very important especially in health care. There are certain bylaws that dictate the patient medical records. It is important to find out that each patient interaction with the patient is classified. This includes conversation and treatment management. Also, there are times when the patients will disclose personal matters and their most intimate feelings and fears. As respect to the profession, take note that these pieces of information is not for public knowledge. Then, gossips about the patient’s history and medical needs are not acceptable.

Loyalty Issues
Fidelity means being loyal or faithful. In medical assisting, fidelity is about faithfulness to the employer. Nonetheless, there is a thin line to being loyal to the employer and doing harm to the patient because the employer or the physician orders his assistant to perform interventions that can cause harm to the client.

Honesty And Making Mistakes
Accepting one has done wrong can be difficult. However, when it comes to health care, practicing openness is a must because just one error can cause the patient’s life. Also, failure to admit mistakes can cause potential lawsuits and threat to the organization.

No one is perfect and there is no perfect career. The three scenarios given above are just some of the most common bio ethical dilemmas that medical assistants face. Yes, they can be nerve wrecking. But knowing the rules and where one stands in the profession will help avoid such situations.

Meaning Of Dreams In Chinese Medicine

Do dreams carry any meaning? Does it foretell a future event? What do dreams mean, especially recurring unfavorable ones? What about sweet dreams or scarry dreams?

People frequent ask me but I am of not much help as this is not my area of expertise. In fact dreams interpretation is a separate skill by itself.

Recently I read a book on Chinese Medicine and there is a section on how dreams can assist in Chinese medical diagnosis. This is from a section in the Yellow Emperor’s Medicine Classic called the Miraculous Pivot. I find it extremely interesting and I would like to share some of their findings with you.

The classic says that fearful dream is a result of lack of qi in the heart and gallbladder. It can also be due a prolonged illness or excessive anxiety.

Angry dream is caused by stagnation of qi in the liver and gallbladder or hardening of the liver. It can also be due to the presence of gallstones. Conversely, happy dream is due to the smooth flow of qi and indicate quick recovery even if you should fall sick.

Sad dream is due to deficiency of qi in the heart and lung, deficiency of yin in the liver for example with chronic liver disease and tuberculosis. Melancholic dream is due to imbalance in the liver and spleen.

What about dreams where you are continuous striving for something? This is due to reverse flow of qi in the liver and gallbladder and increasing yang in the liver for example with hypertension and poor food digestion.

Floating and falling in dreams are amongst the most common type of dreams. Floating dream is due to excess in the upper part of the body but deficiency in the lower parts like deficiency of the kidneys, excess phlegm or coronary heart disease. Falling dream is due to deficiency in the upper and excess in the lower part. This is often seen in water retention in the kidneys and deficiency of yang in the heart.

What if you dream of looking for food or water? Looking for food dream indicate a weak spleen and deficiency of yin in the stomach. If you dream of looking for water it can imply excessive yang and depletion of bodily fluids for example due to high fever or dehydration.

What about looking for toilet dream? According to the classic this dream is often caused by painful urination, inflammation of the intestines, poor digestion or diarrhea.

Finally what is the cause of the most serious form of dreams, sleep walking? It is most likely due to stagnation of qi in the liver or distractions!

Market Of Senna And Sennocides

Herbal plants are doctors for many health related problems. Senna is one of that. Senna leafs, senna stems; senna pods all are used in the herbal medication. Mainly senna is used for the short term treatment of constipation and other skin problems. Sennocides are calcium salts or hydroxyanthracene glycosides that are derived from senna or senna leafs. They are used as a time tested and natural laxatives in the field of medicine.

Sennocides are taken with full glass of water or as per directed by doctor. It will work within 8-12 hours. Calcium sennocides are made just by adding calcium salt to sennocide. Sennocides are pale brownish in color and easily soluble in water and alcohol. It is designated as sennocide A & B. Sennosides irritates the inside layer of the large intestine. It results in the contraction of muscles. Senna and its parts like senna leafs and senna pods are used for early records, constipation, cathartic, and other medical use. Action of sennocide generates the laxative effect.

How to use sennocide:
Sennocide medicine should be taken before bedtime with the glass full of water. Person having stomach cramping or vomiting should not use the medicine without prior consult to doctor. Use of medicine for extended time, and in excessive amount may lead to addiction. Do not double up your dose if you miss your dose. Make habit of having as many glass of water as possible. Do not use this medication daily as it seems harmful.

Side effects:
Bloating
Rectal irritation
Cramping
Change in urine color i.e. urine turns to red-orange in color.
Spasmodic gastrointestinal problem.
Weakness and dizziness.
Rectal bleeding.

Senna stems are also used in medication. Cassia angustifolia is the scientific name. It is in the form of stem and is originated from north and south India. Indian senna, Tinnevelly senna, cassia senna are all other name of senna. Indian senna is shrub with yellow flowers. The dried leafs of it are used in the medicines. Tinnevelly senna is also same as Indian senna and is used in medicine field too. Demand of Tinnevelly senna is increasing now a day.

There are so many companies who are involved in the business of senna leaf. Let us take an example of G.Das & Co.Pvt.Ltd. This company is totally involved the cultivation, processing and exporting of senna, senna leafs, senna pods, senna stems and more. There are senna traders too like Evergreen Impex Pvt Ltd, tradekey etc.

Senna exporters are one who exports the senna leafs and other form of senna to other countries or state. Southern part of state like Tamil Nadu is famous for the senna cultivation. Even Rajasthan is also famous for senna cultivation and as senna exporters. Senna cultivation is done in the large quantity. Basically senna cultivation is done in the red soil tract. Once the senna is cultivated, it is forwarded to the processing unit.

The senna processing includes the following steps:
Cleaning
Grading
Winnowing
Blending
Bailing

Many infections, one medicine – Generic Flagyl

Flagyl, an antibiotic, is used to treat various infections in the body including those of the skin, gut areas, pelvic cavity, brain abcesses, leg ulcers, pressure sores, gums, osteomyelitis, and necrotizing pneumonia. Generic Metronidazole, the medicinal compound in Flagyl, destroys the DNA function in vulnerable anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. The medicine is effectively used in the prevention of infection following a surgical procedure, particularly after childbirth. It is also used to cure bacterial Vaginosis, urogenital Trichomoniasis, and Amoebic Dysentery.

Generic Metronidazole in Flagyl, belongs to the antibiotic class of drugs called nitroimidazoles, and is used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria [that do not need oxygen to survive] and micro-organisms called protozoa. Metronidazole is believed to disable the DNA synthesis in the susceptible bacteria, thereby preventing functioning of the existing bacteria and inhibiting further development.

Flagyl has been found to be extremely effective when used in the prevention and treatment of infections following gynaecological surgery such as Puerperal fever or Sepsis that can occur after childbirth, or Giardiasis that is a gut infection. This medicine is equally effective in treating Septicaemia [blood poisoning], Brain abcesses, Necrotizing Pneumonia, Osteomyelitis [infection in the bones], Pelvic abcesses, Peritonitis [abdominal infection], Bacterial Vaginosis [vaginal infection caused by bacteria], Urogenital Trichomoniasis [a sexually transmitted genital infection], and Amoebic Dysentery [a protozoal infection]. The medicine helps to cure Dental infections, Ulcerative Gingivitis [gum inflammation and ulcers], and bacteria-infected leg ulcers as well as pressure sores.

Flagyl Generic is an oral medication, though for serious infections, Metronidazole is administered intravenously in the beginning, followed by the oral treatment. The dosage may vary according to the infection, as in treating infection of brain abcesses, when a high dose has to be given. The medicine is given according to the patient’s medical condition and should be taken as advised by the doctor. It is recommended that the medicine should not be chewed, but swallowed with a lot of water; it can be taken regardless of food. Even if you feel better soon, the entire therapy must be taken, as antibiotics often help to make one feel better quickly, but if the course is not completed, you run the risk of the infection returning. While on this treatment, and for at least 48 hours later, you should not consume alcohol, otherwise you may experience a great deal of discomfort from nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, headache, in addition to flushing.

Before the physician puts you on to Flagyl, let the doctor know about all the ailments you’ve suffered from; all the medicines [prescription, OTC], nutritional supplements, herbal products you’re taking; and if you have any known allergies, particularly to Metronidazole or any Nitroimidazole derivative. Let the treating doctor know if you have a decreased liver function, Hepatic Encephalopathy [a brain disease caused by an underlying liver problem], Seizures, Crohn’s disease, Prophyrias [an inherited blood disorder], Anemia [inadequate number of red blood cells], or Leukopenia [inadequate number of white blood cells]. The doctor has to know about all your medicines, so that the correct dose can be worked out, and lab tests be instituted, wherever necessary, to monitor your condition.

For Amoebic Dysentery, or an Amoebic abcess in the liver, the dose varies but is usually administered from 5-10 days. Flagyl is recommended in pediatrics only for treatment of Amoebiasis – for children who have such problems, normally 3 doses are given for a period of 10 days. As plasma clearance decreases in patients having a decreased liver function, geriatrics have to undergo lab tests for monitoring of serum levels, so that they get just the right dose of the medicine.

To treat very severe anaerobic infections, Flagyl is usually administered intravenously at the beginning, followed with an oral dose every 6 hours [dependent upon weight], lasting 7-10 days. In the treatment of infections of the bones, joints, lower respiratory tract, and endocardium, the therapy can extend beyond the usual 10 days, and the dosage pattern can vary. Those who suffer from a serious hepatic disease are given low doses of Flagyl, to prevent accumulation of Metronidazole in the plasma.

There are a large number of drugs that interact with Metronidazole. If taken together with anticoagulants [Warfarin, Nicoumalone], there can be adverse effects – the risk of bleeding may increase in such patients. Antiepileptic medicines like Phenobarbital can render Flagyl less effective. Those taking Flagyl with Ciclosporin, or Lithium, will have to get their blood levels and kidney function checked from time-to-time; while those who take Metronidazole with Fluorouracil [an anti-cancer medicine] can find an increase in the side-effects caused by Flourouracil, though Flagyl does not reduce the anti-cancer effect. If taken with Phenytoin, Flagyl is capable of increasing blood levels that will have to be monitored.

Metronidazole is not recommended for patients on Disulfram treatment, as the two taken together tend to enhance psychotic symptoms, adversely affecting paranoia and bring about hallucinations, unless 2 weeks have passed since the patient last took Disulfram.

Some side-effects that commonly occur include nausea, vomiting, headache, stomachache/abdominal cramps, epigastric discomfort [due to feeling of fullness in the throat/esophagus], diarrhea, or conversely constipation, a distinct unpleasant taste, hives, rash, dryness of mouth or vagina, incontinence, or pelvic pressure. If any of these symptoms worsen or persist, then you must contact your doctor at once. Severe allergic reactions to Flagyl are unlikely, but can include the usual reactions, like: rash, itching, swelling, laboured breathing, or severe dizziness.

Serious but unlikely side effects may occur if Flagyl is administered for a prolonged period, such as: convulsive seizures, peripheral neuropathy [numbness/tingling of hands/feet], mood changes, painful urination, white patches in the mouth, or a new vaginal yeast infection; or should you happen to experience a rare but serious side-effect that may present itself in the form of a sore throat, unusual bleeding/bruising, or fever, then in any such condition, you must immediately inform your physician who will give further advice. However, most people who are being treated with Flagyl, do not experience severe side effects.

Pregnant or lactating women should seek the doctor’s advice before taking Flagyl, so should those who are planning to conceive. For treatment of Trichomoniasis, pregnant patients are not given the drug in the first trimester, while for those for whom an alternative treatment has not yielded good results, the 1-day therapy cannot be given as it causes abnormally high serum levels that can affect the circulation in their fetus, for Metronidazole is known to cross the placental barrier. Dosage regimen for women and men having Trichomoniasis is based on the medical condition of the patient.

Women who are taking an oral Birth Control pill or using contraceptive patches, face a low risk of an unwanted pregnancy if administered Metronidazole; but to avoid even this low risk, it is recommended that such women should use an extra method to prevent childbirth while taking Flagyl, without a break, and continue with that for a week after the Flagyl therapy has ended. The gynaecologist or physician should be consulted for individualized advice.

The medicine in tablet formulation must be stored below a room temperature of 25oC, protected from light, heat and dampness; and kept away from children and pets.

Generic Metronidazole – the one-stop cure for treating various infections of the skin, lungs, gastro-genito-urinary tract, bones, gums, blood poisoning, and post-surgery in women following childbirth. Buy Flagyl Online from our Online Pharmacy at affordable price.

Magnesium Citrate A Miracle Medicine To Offer Relief From Severe Constipation As Well As Stress

Health is wealth and to care of our health is necessary if we want to lead a happy life. There are many factors that directly affect our life but the most important of them all is our lifestyle. Lifestyle brings many changes in our life and however seemed small earlier these changes highly affect our health. In todays time when we all have very little time to take care our body and health, its not uncommon to suffer from disease like stress and constipation.

Stress has become a common problem in the life of common man. There are many reasons to cause stress to a person but sometimes it just happen because of any other problem in our body, which we generally ignore. The fact that most of the people suffer stress in their life just because of their disturbed digestive system also makes it necessary that we take our body first and for this it is necessary that we take proper diets. Healthy diet is essential for healthy body and so for the healthy mind. And it comes to healthy diet; we talk all minerals & nutrients along with carbohydrates, fats, protein, water etc.

Minerals and nutrients are essential for our body because they however present in small amounts in our body, take big parts in the proper functioning of our body. One such important mineral is Magnesium that has innumerable miracle property to help maintain proper body functioning. Although magnesium is a natural mineral, found in almost every food on earth, its small amounts make it very difficult to get sufficient amount from just food only. In most of the cases, its deficiency is compensated with supplementary Magnesium salts. Magnesium Citrate is one such supplement of magnesium that give relieves from the many symptoms of the magnesium deficiency.

Magnesium Citrate, also known as the Milk of Magnesia, Citrate of Magnesia, Citronesia, and Citroma can do miracle in case of severe constipation, where it not only give Constipation Relief but also relieves stress.

Magnesium Citrate is also beneficial to control typical medical situations like Eclampsia, the third highest cause of maternal mortality after abortions and pulmonary embolism. The mineral is not only effective for early Eclampsia prevention but also ensure stress-free pregnancy. There is no doubt that magnesium supplements are best available mineral supplements in the medicine world that enhance our daily intake of minerals without causing any adverse effect to our body. Safe for all human beings, these supplements are sure way to live a healthy and long life.

Link between Weight and Age, and Herbal Treatment

Herbal Treatment against Overweight

Herbal medicine remains undoubtedly the best way to accomplish a reducing weight diet. Over-weight has two main origins, the first is an uncontrolled appetite and the second is low metabolic rates related to a food absorption dysfunction. The function of herbal drugs would be to suppress the voracious appetite or to boost the metabolism in order to increase metabolic rates in the safest way ever. Self-conviction is also very important to control the huge appetite, if you are not mentally ready to begin a diet, the whole operation is utterly useless. You may be more impotent towards overweight caused by low metabolic rates because you may not be a big eater but involuntary fat.

Herbal ingredients will enhance your food absorption through increasing your metabolic rates with no one side-effects. Therefore, herbal weight loss appears to be the safer manner to go through a reducing weight program.

Lighting – Medicine Of The Best Future

As researchers isolate the specific part of the sun’s spectrum that is related to health and well-being, we could eventually create the perfect indoor environment with artificial lighting, until then it’s Vita-Lite. Based on the research of Hollwich and others, the cool-white fluorescent bulb is legally banned in German hospitals and medical facilities. Most offices, stores, hospitals, and schools currently use cool-white fluorescent!

Full Vs. Incomplete Spectrum Lighting

“In 1980, Dr. Fritz Hollwich conducted a study comparing the effects of sitting under strong artificial cool-white (non-full spectrum) illumination versus the effects of sitting under strong artificial illumination that simulates sunlight (full-spectrum). Using changes in the endocrine system to evaluate these effects, he found stress like levels of ACTH an cortisol (the stress hormones) in individuals in sitting under the cool-white tubes. These changes were totally absent in the individuals sitting under the sunlight-simulating tubes.

The significance of Hollowich’s findings becomes clear when the functions of ACTH and cortisol are examined. Both of these metabolic hormones play major roles in the functioning of the entire body and are very much related to stress response. Since their activity increases inhibitors, this may account for the observation that persistent stress stunts bodily growth in children. Hollowich’s findings clarify and substantiate the observations of Ott and others regarding the agitated physical behavior, fatigue, and reduced mental capabilities of children. He concluded that the degree of biological disturbance and the resulting behavioral mal adaptations were directly related to the difference between the spectral composition of the artificial source and that of natural light.

Since cool-white fluorescent lamps are especially deficient in the red and blue-violet ends of the spectrum, this may explain why color therapists have historically used a combination of the colors red and blue-violet as an emotional stabilizer. Hollwich’s work not only confirms the biological importance of full-spectrum lighting, but it also reconfirms the importance of specific colors by evaluating the effects of their omission from our daily lives. Based on the research of Hollwich and others, the cool-white fluorescent bulb is legally banned in German hospitals and medical facilities. It has been found that full-spectrum lighting in the work place creates significantly lower stress on the nervous system than standard cool-white fluorescent lighting and reduces the number of absences due to illness. These findings seem to indicate that full-spectrum lighting may act to boost the immune system in the same way as natural sunlight. Excerpt from “Light Medicine of the Future,” by Jacob Liberman, O.D., Ph.D.

Shedding Light on Those Winter Blues

Does your spirit wanes with the shortening of days? You may be suffering from sunlight withdrawal. The syndrome appears with inevitable regularity. As summer pales into autumn, the victim feels an ominous sense of anxiety and foreboding at the mere thought of approaching winter. As days shorten from November into December, there’s a gradual slowing down, a low of energy, a need for more and more sleep, a longing to lie undisturbed in bed.

It becomes harder to get to work, to accomplish anything when there. Depression and withdrawal follow. As a Brooklyn, New York, woman described it, “Everything seems gloomier and more difficult. There is sadness looming over everything. I can’t concentrate at work and feel like going home afterward to hibernate like a bear.”

Just as routinely, as spring approaches and days stretch out, the sufferer flips into high gear.”Once the warm weather arrives, I feel a burden lifted,” says the Brooklynite. “I feel freer and happier.”

This is more than a dislike of icy slush and raw winds. Psychiatric researchers at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) have identified these complaints as a previously unrecognized clinical syndrome. They call its victims “winter depressives.” “It is much more common than we thought,” says Dr. Norman Rosenthal of NIMH. “We expected to get a few replies from our description of this pattern. Instead, we received more than three thousand responses from all over the country. The symptoms described were one after the other very much the same.

“Some of these winter depressives are being successfully treated, not with drugs or psychotherapy but with an element common to all our lives: artificial light. What scientists are learning from the use of light as it affects health and mood has implications for us all. It forces us to rethink the way we light up our lives, especially urban dwellers and workers who spend so much time indoors. Apparently artificial light does much more than enable us to read and work without benefit of sunlight. It affects our bodies.

“It is important to recognize that this is a distinct syndrome with a well-defined cluster of symptoms,” says Dr. Thomas Wehr, an NIMH researcher. “We have measured some very interesting physiological changes specific to this kind of depression.” While typically depressed people have impaired sleep patterns and usually wake up early, winter depressives might sleep nine or 10 hours a night, wake up tired, and take naps. There is a 50% reduction in delta sleep, the deepest, most restful phase of the sleep cycle. Winter depressives gain weight, crave carbohydrates, and their libido pales. Their energy levels drop; monitors on their wrists show that they are less active than in summer.

Such symptoms begin earlier the farther north they live and abate when they visit sunny climates in the winter. Symptoms peak and wane according to the length of days. In New York, for instance, on the shortest day of the year – December 21 – the sun rose at 7:17 a.m. and set at 4:32 p.m., contrasted to 5:25 a.m. and 8:31 p.m. at the height of summer, a six hour difference in light. Such a distinct seasonal pattern implicates the external environment as the culprit, the most obvious being sunlight. Sunlight has already been shown to trigger cycles and seasonal behavior in animals, including reproduction, hibernation, migration, and molting. Animal behavior has been fooled by artificial light. Could it also fool humans? Apparently. In a recent NIMH study, a group of these depressives were treated with amounts of light that simulated that of summer days. Short winter days were stretched by six extra hours of light. The subjects were awakened before sunrise to bask in three hours of light, and dusk was delayed for three more.

Since sunlight is thought to be the missing element, the subjects were flooded with an artificial light that most closely resembles the full broad spectrum of the sun. At 20 times the intensity of normal indoor lighting, the light approximated the sensation of sitting on a shady porch or under a tree in mid-summer. Fluorescent lamps are roughly three times more intense than ordinary light bulbs. A bank of eight 4-watt fluorescent bulbs at eye level lit the participants’ rooms as they read, worked, or moved around. Within days this group responded with measurable mood changes, says Rosenthal. Their symptoms eased and energy levels rose, while a control group with a different threshold of light showed no change in behavior.

“Something in the external environment caused these changes,” says Wehr, “but we are not prepared to say exactly what it is at this point. It is true, though, that waking up these people and exposing them to this light treated their symptoms. Whether it is the break in sleep pattern, the wavelengths or intensity of light, or some other factor we can’t say at this point. The intensity of light used in the study may be well in excess of what is necessary to effect changes, stress the researchers. So they will continue to experiment with varieties of light therapy to determine the crucial element. The subjects themselves feel that sunlight is the missing ingredient.

One said that she felt as if she were in a “lower state of evolution since I function by photosynthesis.” Although these winter depressives showed an abnormal response to light, each of us responds to it in varying degrees. External light travels on a direct pathway from the retina to the part of the hypothalamus believed to be involved in running our biologic clock, the suprachiasmatic nuclei. The path continues to the tiny, cone-shaped pineal gland, which secretes the hormone melatonin. It is thought that melatonin affects the regulation of behavioral changes in animals, but this has not been clearly shown in humans. Sufficiently intense light suppresses the secretion of this chemical, making it a useful marker in determining light’s physical effect on behavior. The secretion of melatonin reflects light’s effect on the hypothalamus, itself highly sensitive to light. This complex part of the brain regulates a multitude of body functions, playing a vital role in reproduction, thirst, hunger, satiation, temperature, emotions, and sleep patterns. Depression is associated with disturbances in the hypothalamus.

“By stimulating the hypothalamus with light we may be correcting these disturbances in this group,” explains Rosenthal. Most artificial light differs from natural sunlight in wavelength (color) and intensity. Sunlight is very intense electromagnetic energy in a continuous spectrum of colors ranging from the short wavelengths of invisible ultraviolet light (UV) through blue, green, yellow, and into the infrared waves. Incandescent bulbs that light through heat light the majority of our homes. They lack the intensity of sunlight and produce light that is heavily infrared. “We don’t like the incandescent lights,” says Wehr. “It’s conceivable for this purpose that they are not the safest. You can get burned from the heat and the infrared radiation.”

Although some fluorescent lamps are described as “broad spectrum,” they do not have the same distribution of colors as sunlight. Widely used fluorescent lights peak in the yellow-green portion of the spectrum, wavelengths to which the eye is most sensitive. That makes them energy efficient but different from natural sunlight, notably in the blue-green spectrum where the sun’s emission or radiant energy is strongest. Additionally, conventional indoor lighting lacks the proper proportion of near-UV radiation of the sun that advocates claim to be vital to health and well being. Just as overexposure can be unhealthy, regulated doses of sun and UV can be therapeutic. UV is currently used to treat psoriasis and, experimentally, genital herpes and some forms of cancer in the early stages of the illness. Full-spectrum artificial light is widely used to cure potentially fatal type of infant jaundice. We need sunlight with its UV rays to metabolize vitamin D, necessary for the absorption of calcium, especially in growing children and the elderly.

Some studies show that working under true full-spectrum lights enhances productivity and reduces fatigue. Even critics concede that many people who are deprived of natural light, such as night or shift workers, suffer undue emotional stress. Whether or just how we should alter our indoor lighting is a question being raised by these studies. As Dr. Richard Wurtman, professor of endocrinology and metabolism at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has been saying for years, we should not take artificial lighting for granted. Lined up in the pro-sunlight camp, he has written, “Light is potentially too useful an agency of human health not to be more effectively examined and exploited.” As researchers isolate the specific part of the sun’s spectrum that is related to health and well-being, we could eventually create the perfect indoor environment with artificial lighting, says E. Woody Bickford, environmental engineer with Duro-Test, manufacturers of Vita-Lite. “Until we know,” he points out, “Vita Lite, with its complete range of visible and invisible light, is what we have to work with.”

For ordinary indoor lighting, two to four 40-watt lamps would provide some health benefits, he says. “The benefits seem to be proportional to the amount of light,” he adds. “We may need higher intensity in all our work levels. Perhaps the cutoff point is what you can afford,” Vita-Lite tubes are expensive, and most of our homes are not equipped with fixtures that can accommodate them.

Although many lighting experts are skeptical of the entire concept of light affecting our health, some light manufacturers are beginning to support research in the field, and one trade association has just established a new branch devoted to light and health. As the relationship between light and health becomes publicized, NIHM’s Rosenthal worries that people will try to treat themselves. “With the winter depressives it’s a matter of risks out-weighing benefits. Bright light can damage the retina; UV can be dangerous. But depression can be dangerous for them, too!”

Rather than attempting to cure themselves, people who think that they are winter depressives should contact the NIMH, Bethesda, Maryland 20205, for literature and specific recommendations as they become available